: February 06, 2012 |
: Company Law
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Mergers and Acquisitions for firms – A Boon or Bane
Mergers and acquisitions in its basic terminology means that merger is a combination of two companies to form a new company, while an acquisition (or takeover) is the purchase of one company by another in which no new company is formed. Although the terms Mergers and Acquisitions may be used synonymously, but they differ in sense that a merger take place when two firms agree to go forward as a single new company and in acquisition the right over other company is acquired. Acquisition (or takeover) is an attempt to acquire the Target Company.
Mergers and acquisitions is one of the best processes of corporate restructuring that has gained substantial prominence in the present day corporate world. Restructuring usually means major changes and modifications in the corporate strategies and beliefs.
Types of Mergers:
Based on the offerors’ objectives profile, combinations could be vertical, horizontal, circular and conglomeratic as precisely described below with reference to the purpose in view of the offeror company.
(A) Vertical combination:
A company would like to takeover another company or seek its merger with that company to expand espousing backward integration to assimilate the resources of supply and forward integration towards market outlets. The acquiring company through merger of another unit attempts on reduction of inventories of raw material and finished goods, implements its production plans as per the objectives and economizes on working capital investments.
In other words, in vertical combinations, the merging undertaking would be either a supplier or a buyer using its product as intermediary material for final production.
The following main benefits accrue from the vertical combination to the acquirer company:
(1) It gains a strong position because of imperfect market of the intermediary products, scarcity of resources and purchased products;
(2) Has control over products specifications.
(B) Horizontal combination:
It is a merger of two competing firms which are at the same stage of industrial process. The acquiring firm belongs to the same industry as the target company. The mail purpose of such mergers is to obtain economies of scale in production by eliminating duplication of facilities and the operations and broadening the product line, reduction in investment in working capital, elimination in competition concentration in product, reduction in advertising costs, increase in market segments and exercise better control on market.
(C) Circular combination:
Companies producing distinct products seek amalgamation to share common distribution and research facilities to obtain economies by elimination of cost on duplication and promoting market enlargement. The acquiring company obtains benefits in the form of economies of resource sharing and diversification.
(D) Conglomerate combination:
It is amalgamation of two companies engaged in unrelated industries like DCM and Modi Industries. The basic purpose of such amalgamations remains utilization of financial resources and enlarges debt capacity through re-organizing their financial structure so as to service the shareholders by increased leveraging and EPS, lowering average cost of capital and thereby raising present worth of the outstanding shares. Merger enhances the overall stability of the acquirer company and creates balance in the company’s total portfolio of diverse products and production processes.
One of the most reason for mergers and acquisitions is the belief that "synergies" exist, allowing the two companies to work more efficiently together than either would separately. Such synergies may result from the firms' combined ability to exploit economies of scale, eliminate duplicated functions, share managerial expertise, and raise larger amounts of capital. Merger is a tool used by companies for the purpose of expanding their operations often aiming at an increase of their long term profitability. Usually mergers occur in a consensual (occurring by mutual consent) setting. The dictionary meaning of Mergers is “to combine commercial or industrial firms” or “to lose identity by being absorbed in something else”.
The basic purpose of merger or business combination is to achieve faster growth of the corporate business. Faster growth may be had through product improvement and competitive position.
1) Procurement of supplies: To safeguard the source of supplies of raw materials or intermediary product
2) Revamping production facilities: To achieve economies of scale by amalgamating production facilities through more intensive utilization of plant and resources;
3) Market expansion and strategy: To eliminate competition and protect existing market;
4) Financial strength: To improve liquidity and have direct access to cash resource;
5) Strategic purpose: The Acquirer Company view the merger to achieve strategic objectives through alternative type of combinations which may be horizontal, vertical, product expansion, market extensional or other specified unrelated objectives depending upon the corporate strategies
6) Desired level of integration: Mergers and acquisition are pursued to obtain the desired level of integration between the two combining business houses. Such integration could be operational or financial.
Advantages of Mergers and Takeovers:
Mergers and acquisitions are caused with the support of shareholders, managers and promoters of the combining companies.
From the standpoint of shareholders
Investment made by shareholders in the companies subject to merger should enhance in value. The sale of shares from one company’s shareholders to another and holding investment in shares should give rise to greater values i.e. the opportunity gains in alternative investments. Shareholders may gain from merger in different ways viz. from the gains and achievements of the company i.e. through
(a) realization of monopoly profits;
(b) economies of scales;
(c) diversification of product line;
(d) acquisition of human assets and other resources not available otherwise;
(e) better investment opportunity in combinations.
From the standpoint of managers
Managers are concerned with improving operations of the company, managing the affairs of the company effectively for all round gains and growth of the company which will provide them better deals in raising their status, perks and fringe benefits. Mergers where all these things are the guaranteed outcome get support from the managers. At the same time, where managers have fear of displacement at the hands of new management in amalgamated company and also resultant depreciation from the merger then support from them becomes difficult.
Mergers do offer to company promoters the advantage of increasing the size of their company and the financial structure and strength. They can convert a closely held and private limited company into a public company without contributing much wealth and without losing control.
Benefits to general public:
Impact of mergers on general public could be viewed as aspect of benefits and costs to:
(a) Consumer of the product or services;
(b) Workers of the companies under combination;
(c) General public affected in general having not been user or consumer or the worker in the companies under merger plan.
Mergers are pursued under the Companies Act, 1956 vide sections 391/394 thereof or may be envisaged under the provisions of Income-tax Act, 1961 or arranged through BIFR under the Sick Industrial Companies Act, 1985
Effects of Mergers and Acquisitions:
Effects Of Mergers And Acquisitions on workers or employees:
Aftermath of mergers and acquisitions impact the employees or the workers the most. It is a well known fact that whenever there is a merger or an acquisition, there are bound to be lay offs.
In the event when a new resulting company is efficient business wise, it would require less number of people to perform the same task. Under such circumstances, the company would attempt to downsize the labor force. If the employees who have been laid off possess sufficient skills, they may in fact benefit from the lay off and move on for greener pastures. But it is usually seen that the employees those who are laid off would not have played a significant role under the new organizational set up. This accounts for their removal from the new organization set up. These workers in turn would look for re employment and may have to be satisfied with a much lesser pay package than the previous one. Even though this may not lead to drastic unemployment levels, nevertheless, the workers will have to compromise for the same. If not drastically, the mild undulations created in the local economy cannot be ignored fully.
Effect on Management:
Effect of mergers and acquisitions on top level management:
It may actually involve a "clash of the egos". There might be variations in the cultures of the two organizations. Under the new set up the manager may be asked to implement such policies or strategies, which may not be quite approved by him. When such a situation arises, the main focus of the organization gets diverted and executives become busy either settling matters among themselves or moving on. If however, the manager is well equipped with a degree or has sufficient qualification, the migration to another company may not be troublesome at all.
Effects of Mergers and Acquisitions on Shareholders:
We can further categorize the shareholders into two parts:
The Shareholders of the acquiring firm
The shareholders of the target firm.
Shareholders of the acquired firm:
The shareholders of the acquired company benefit the most. The reason being, it is seen in majority of the cases that the acquiring company usually pays a little excess than it what should. Unless a man lives in a house he has recently bought, he will not be able to know its drawbacks. So that the shareholders forgo their shares, the company has to offer an amount more then the actual price, which is prevailing in the market. Buying a company at a higher price can actually prove to be beneficial for the local economy.
Shareholders of the acquiring firm:
They are most affected. If we measure the benefits enjoyed by the shareholders of the acquired company in degrees, the degree to which they were benefited, by the same degree, these shareholders are harmed. This can be attributed to debt load, which accompanies an acquisition.
Mergers and acquisitions have gained importance in recent times. Business consolidation by large industrial houses, consolidation of business by multinationals operating in India, increasing competition amongst domestic companies and competition against imports have all combined to spur mergers and acquisitions activities in India.
2006 will be remembered in India’s corporate history as a year when Indian companies covered a lot of new ground. They went shopping across the globe and acquired a number of strategically significant companies. This comprised 60 per cent of the total mergers and acquisitions (M&A) activity in India in 2006. And almost 99 per cent of acquisitions were made with cash payments.
Just as mergers and acquisitions may be fruitful in some cases, the impact of mergers and acquisitions on various sects of the company may differ.
Mergers and acquisitions are aimed at improving profits and productivity of a company. Simultaneously, the objective is also to reduce expenses of the firm. However, mergers and acquisitions are not always successful. At times, the main goal for which the process has taken place loses focus. The success of mergers, acquisitions or takeovers is determined by a number of factors. Those mergers and acquisitions, which are resisted not only affects the entire work force in that organization but also harm the credibility of the company. In the process, in addition to deviating from the actual aim, psychological impacts are also many. Studies have suggested that mergers and acquisitions affect the senior executives, labor force and the shareholders.
The author can be reached at: firstname.lastname@example.org
The concept of Trademark is not new in the Indian scenario. In this 21st century of commercial, technical and scientific advancement, the importance of trademark to a business house or the manufacturer of goods to which such marks are applied cannot be undermined.
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