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Published : November 28, 2012 | Author : nalirupa
Category : Environmental Law | Total Views : 11403 | Rating :

  
nalirupa
Nalini R 388/72, 9th mainn road, vijaynagar, bangalore-560040
 

A study on Non-Governmental Organization’s (NGO’s) in Protecting The Environment
“World today is economically richer & environmentally poorer the ever” - By R Brown, President of World Watch Institute, Washington

The Consequences of the Environmental pollution are not hard to comprehend, whereas the solution to ending environmental pollution is not easy to come by this is an unending complex and intricate debate and may be single solution, however attempts can always be made to find out solution to specific problems keeping in view the technological solutions legal parameters and judicial pronouncements & the role of NGO’s has a very important to protection of environment through social services. The NGO’s from past five decades have witnessed the difficult problems encountered in providing health care services to our poor people; spread the awareness to public protection of wildlife, forest, human right, Women and Children etc
 
Human beings are the ecologically dominant species in the whole ecosystem. Although they have the same need for heat, light, water and food that other species have, they alone posses’ attributes that give them dominance over other living species. Thus, human beings compete far more successfully than all other living creatures. Furthermore, human beings have been able to manipulate natural forces in the eco-system with an intensity unsurpassed by any other living being. This manipulation has given rise to the break down of the natural self-protective and self-perpetuating mechanisms built into nature, a situation made even worse by a belief that human beings have the right to use the natural environment solely for their own design and ends, without consideration for the consequences of their own designs and ends, without consideration for the consequences of their actions on the system. With the gearing up of industrial revolution, this human tendency towards nature becomes much stronger. The of technology and machines to subjugate nature became the redo of the modern world.
 
Meaning of Social Work
"Never think, I will give when I am rich;Just give what you can, while you can..."Social workis a professional and academic discipline that seeks to improve the quality of life and wellbeing of an individual, group, or community by intervening through research, policy, community organizing, direct practice, and teaching on behalf of those afflicted with poverty or any real or perceived social injustices and violations of their human rights. Research is often focused on areas such as human development, social policy, public administration, program evaluation and international and community development. Social workers are organized into local, national, continental and international professional bodies. Social work, an interdisciplinary field, includes theories from economics, education, sociology, medicine, philosophy, politics, psychology, Environment and etc.

There are a number of associations for social workers, which exist to provide ethical guidance and other forms of support for their members and social work in general. These associations/organizations are distinguished in international, continental or semi-continental, national and regional. The main international ones are the International Federation of Social Workers (IFSW) and the International Association of Schools of Social Work (IASSW). In the United States the main one is the National Association of Social Workers. Smaller numbers are members of Unite the union and the GMB (trade union). The British Union of Social Work Employees (BUSWE) has been a section of the Community (trade union) since 2008. In 2011 the British Association of Social Workers launched a trade union arm for the second time (it first tried this in 1976) called the Social Workers' Union but this body is not recognized by the  any employers, not only this organization but also so many National & International   Non-Governmental Organization (i.e. NGO’s)

A Non-Governmental Organization is a social service organization working towards a better society. True to its name, ‘ perseveres to bring in a positive change by uniting people who share the common vision of a developed India, and pay back to the society which helped us. All big missions have humble beginnings and so is ‘is endeavor. Our mission is to address issues like poverty and ignorance that are threatening and weakening our country’s progress.

We aim to achieve literacy, eradicate poverty, abolish child labour, uplift and instill confidence among the weaker sections of the society. Our NGO services focus on assessing individual strengths and needs, setting personal goals and providing an environment that encourages overall growth and development.

Historical Evolution of NGO’s in India
The expression, “Non-Governmental Organization” can be defined in the following terms:
“A non-governmental organization’s (NGO’s) is any non-profit, voluntary citizens’ groups which is organized on a local, national or international level. Task orientated and driven by people with a commoninterest, NGOs perform a variety of service and humanitarian functions, bring citizens concerns to the government, advocate and monitor policies and encourage political participation through provisions of information. Some are organized around specific issues, such as human rights, environment or health. They provide analysis and expertise, serve as early warning mechanisms and help monitor and implement international arguments”.

A country like India, which is the world largest democracy, the seventh largest country in the world in terms of land area and the second most populous country in the world, the relevance of the NGO as a concept in theory and in practice, as a vibrant means of ensuring that the concerns of the citizens of this country derive protection in terms of the rule of law, can hardly be over emphasized. The constitution of India, provide an extraordinary source of valuable fundamental rights for the protection of the rights of individuals. It is these rights, coupled with the directive principles of state policy that are relied upon by NGOs in their pivotal role in supporting individuals for the enforcement of their rights in India.

During the days of British Empire, in India, voluntary organizations flourished with an objet to improve social welfare, literacy and relief projects. The history of NGO’s an be traced from Mahatma Gandhi’s mission to encourage village to be self-reliant and this lead to the creationof central Social Welfare Board in 1953, the establishment of National community development programme, the National Extension Services, and the three tier Panchayati Raj System in 1958, Subsequently, the Association for Voluntary Agencies for Rural Development (AVARD) was established as a consortium of major voluntary agencies.

India Has recently celebrated sixty third years as a Republic on 26th January 2012.The last Sixty third years have witnessed an extra ordinary blossoming of NGO’s especially during the 1970’s & 1980’s. The 1990’s have also seen a phenomenal growth in voluntary organizations with civic society taking an active interest in their development and progress. International funding and support from international donor has been noteworthy during the last few decades of   21st century.  It is estimated that, in India there are approximately 1.5 million NGO’s working for different causes. The Government of India in May 20, 067, has issued its National Policy on voluntary sector and the main objet of the policy is to encourage, enable and empower an independent, creative and effective voluntary sector, with diversity in form and function, so that it can contribute to the social, cultural and economics advancement of people of India.

Role of NGO’S in Protection for the Environment in India
The NGO’s constitute a world wide net work interacting with Governments and Internal intergovernmental organization in shaping international environmental policies;-
v  Creating awareness among the public on current environmental issues and solutions.
v  Facilitating the participation of various categories of stakeholders in the discussion on environmental issues.
v  Conducting participatory rural appraisal.
v  Being involved in the protection of human rights to have a clean environment.
v  Protecting the natural resources and entrusting the equitable use of resources.
v  Data generation on natural resources, time line history of villages.
v  Analysis and monitoring of environmental quality.
v  Transferring information through newsletters, brochures, articles, audio visuals, etc.
v  Organizing seminars, lectures and group discussion for promotion of environmental awareness.
v  Helping the villages’ administrative officials in preparation, application and execution of projects on environmental protection.
 
India has a number of NGOs that work in the field of environmental conservation and ecology. Here is a comprehensive list:
1. Assam Science Society

They impart environmental education and training through camps for teachers and students and conduct surveys on environment. Publications: Science books and journals

 2. Bombay Natural History Society
Aims to disseminate knowledge of flora and fauna by means of lectures, field trips, literature and expeditions and, to study wildlife related problems and recommend management plans to conserve wildlife and its habitat. It conducts field research projects on bird migration and studies on the movement and population structure of Indian avifauna. Publications: Hornbill (4 issues in a year), other journals.

3. Centre for Environmental Education (CEE)
They mainly aim to create environmental awareness in the communities, conduct widespread environmental education and training programmers through a very vast network. Publications and database, they have a vast range of publications – books, posters, educational packages, bibliographies and directories.
There is also a large computerized database – the Environment Education bank, which has a collection of more than 800 environment concepts, about 2500 environment related activities and 100s of case studies.

4. Centre for Science and Environment (CSE)
Involved in research, investigative and educational work in the field of pollution, forest, wildlife, land and water use.Publications: Down to Earth - a fortnightly environment magazine; Children’s magazine The Gobar Times; books; reports; computer database; audio visuals, etc.

5. CPR Environmental Education Centre (C.P.RamaswamiAiyar Foundation)

Promotes environmental awareness, to produce and disseminate basic educational and reference material on environment and to take up environmental projects. It works in the field of environmental education. Publications: Books on environment, posters, audio cassettes, web site on environment education.

6. Kerala Sastra Sahitiya Parishad

To preserve the environment, to provide alternative models for development and to popularize science among the people. They have worked in the field of eco-development, creating awareness about water and energy conservation and encouraging the use of non-conventional energy sources such as smokeless chulhas, etc. Publications: Quarterly publications and books.

7. Kalpavriksh

It is a citizen’s action group set up to inculcate understanding and concern on environmental issues, especially among the youth. It also aims to conduct research in environmental problems, to campaign on environmental issues and to evolve a holistic environmental perspective. It imparts environmental education in schools and colleges by forming a network of nature clubs, conducting bird watching expeditions and nature trails and has developed workbooks for the school level. Publications:
·         The Little Green Book.
·         Narmada – a campaign newsletter.
·         What is that bird (An illustrated guide)

8. Narmada Bachao Andalon

Set up in 1986 under the leadership of Medha Patkar. It aims mainly to educate those directly affected by large development projects, such as tribals, on the social and environmental impact of such projects. To protest against the construction of dams in the Narmada Valley in general; struggling towards a right to information and new environmentally sustainable water policy. To help the tribals get a substantial share of the government’s development schemes/services and to unable them to undertake development activities themselves. They mainly educate, mobilize and organize residents of the Narmada Valley on human rights and justice, alternative development policies, environmental issues related to big dams in general and the Narmada project in particular. They undertake surveys of the affected villages, protest against land and forest issues and government interference in this regard. They are fighting against displacement and disregard of the rights of the people.Publication: They come out with a bi-monthly publication the Narmada Samachar.

9. World Wide Fund for Nature

Its main aim is the promotion of conservation of nature and environmental protection as the basis for sustainable and equitable development. Publications: They have innumerable books, cassettes and data on various issues which can be got from their outlets in the cities. Some of them are as follows –
v  WWW Indian Network Newsletter (Quarterly).
v  Nature News.
v  The Web of Life – a resource pack for children.
v  The Law Digest, etc.

10. Foundation for Revitalisation of Local Health Traditions (FRLHT)
FRLHT is a pioneeringKnowledge institute with a vision to revitalize the Indian Medical Heritage. Its Mission is to demonstrate contemporary relevance of Indian Medical Heritage by designing and implementing innovative programme on a size and scale that will have societal impact. The three thrust areas of FRLHTs work are:
v  Conservation of natural resources used by Indian Systems of Medicine
v  Demonstrate the contemporary relevance of  traditional knowledge
v  Revitalizations of social processes for transmission of heritage
 
FRLHT has been pioneering in endogenous research, training and development processes related to traditional health sciences. It has built up a reputation in this field and has started collaborative activities with other research and development centers in the country including the Government. The main objective of the CAPTURED programme is to build capacities for the transformation of Universities and Research centers in South by integration of formation, trans-disciplinary research and social interaction with local healers and indigenous communities, considering the revitalization of local knowledge and wisdom of the indigenous people in dialogue with the knowledge of western sciences. It also envisage to systematically elaborate concepts, theories, methodologies and techniques for trans-disciplinary doctoral research including the development of a curriculum on inter-cultural science and applications of research to support endogenous development in rural communities.

Conclusion

The NGO’sdescribed and discuss the common characteristics of health system functioning in the given socio-economic, socio-cultural, political, environmental protection and social services to protection of world environment,not only above said  list they have so many social services conducting by NGO’s.

The Fundamental objective is to act as catalyst in brining about local, national and international initiative and community participation in overall improvement in quality of life.it would also help the Government to obtain relevant information for promoting and facilitate the implementation of major environmental programs.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
*Assistant professor, Jyothy Institute of technology, Bangalore
**Assistant Professor in law, Karnataka state Law University, hubli,email-nalisandy@gmail.com, ©-9986217913.
 [1]  An ecosystem is the ecological consisting of biotic & abiotic factors in a specific area.
 # “Role of NGOs and community participation in the management of municipal solid waste in India’’ Dr. Deshpande Shweta, The national seminar on solid waste management; legal faices February 5 & 6 2011.
By -Mother Theresa.
 # “Role of NGOs and community participation in the management of municipal solid waste in India’’ Dr. Deshpande Shweta, The national seminar on solid waste management; legal faices February 5 & 6 2011. Page no 62 to 64
# P. Meenakshi “Elements of Environmental Science and Engineering” 2010 ,PHI Learning Private Limited New Delhi-110001
# http://www.mumbaisuburbs.com/articles/ngo-environmental-conservation.html 
# http://www.frlht-captured.org/index.php

Authors contact info - articles The  author can be reached at: nalirupa@legalserviceindia.com




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Article Comments

Posted by M Mehra on June 19, 2013
Please let me know how Section 25 companies - an NGO or non-profit - can
be dissolved. I can only find information on incorporation of such
entities here, but need information on dissolution. Thank you.

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