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Published : October 11, 2012 | Author : Akash Shah
Category : Environmental Law | Total Views : 4198 | Unrated

  
Akash Shah
Akash Shah
 

The Scope of Bio-Fuels as a clean Energy Resource (Sweet Sorghum)

Biofuel is a type of fuel whose energy is derived from biological carbon fixation. Biofuels include fuels derived from biomass conversion, as well as solid biomass, liquid fuels and various biogases. Although fossilfuels have their origin in ancient carbon fixation, they are not considered biofuels by the generally accepted definition because they contain carbon that has been "out" of the carbon cycle for a very long time. Biofuels are gaining increased public and scientific attention, driven by factors such as oil price hikes, the need for increased energy security, concern over greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels, and support from government subsidies.

In 2010 worldwide biofuel production reached 105 billion liters (28 billion gallons US), up 17% from 2009, and biofuels provided 2.7% of the world's fuels for road transport, a contribution largely made up of ethanol and biodiesel. Global ethanol fuel production reached 86 billion liters (23 billion gallons US) in 2010, with the United States and Brazil as the world's top producers, accounting together for 90% of global production. The world's largest biodiesel producer is the European union, accounting for 53% of all biodiesel production in 2010. As of 2011, mandates for blending biofuels exist in 31 countries at the national level and in 29 states/provinces. According to the International Energy Agency, biofuels have the potential to meet more than a quarter of world demand for transportation fuels by 2050.

Biofuel from Sweet Sorghum
· Need for alternate raw material
Policies to blend petrol with up to 10% ethanol are widely adopted globally, which led to additional ethanol requirement – 0.5 million t in 2006 in India alone. Existing feed stocks, such as sugarcane/sugarcane molasses, are unlikely to meet actual demand. Therefore other options have to be sought, and it was found that sweet sorghum has very good potential as a feedstock for ethanol production.

· Advantages of sweet sorghum
Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is similar to grain sorghum with a sugar-rich stalk comparable to sugarcane. It has wide adaptability and grows rapidly. In recent years, there is an increased interest in the utilization of sweet sorghum for ethanol production in India. Its growing period and water requirement are 4 times lower than that of sugarcane. Sweet sorghum is best suited for ethanol production because of its higher reducing sugar content as compared to other sources. These important traits, along with its suitability for mechanized crop production and seed propagation makes it the best alternative source of raw material for ethanol production in India.

· From an economic and environmental point of view

The cost of per liter ethanol production from sweet sorghum grain and juice is lower than that from maize and sugarcane, respectively. The stillage from sweet sorghum is rich in micronutrients and minerals, and can be used as fodder or for cogeneration of power. Ethanol being a ‘clean burning fuel’ with high octane rating, existing automobile engines can be operated with gasohol – petrol blended with ethanol (upto 25%) – without any need for engine modification.

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM / RESEARCH QUESTION
A confluence of global factors come together to create the necessity for a supplement to petroleum based transportation fuels. The following three factors are key drivers for the alternative fuel movement:
1. Declining global oil productive capacity.
2. Economic vulnerability.
3. Global climate change.

OBJECTIVE
The objective of this project is:
Ø To study that actually how much biofuel is used in India.
Ø To find out whether it is best way for energy production.

HYPOTHESIS
The researcher has made certain assumption in the beginning of the research project which are going to be tested during the project, they are the following.
Ø That there is little scope of any support from Government by various policy.
Ø Any other source other than sweet shorghum can be used as natural biofuel.

SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The research is a doctrinal research. The researcher here would like to study only the SWEET SORGHUM as biofuel. The researcher has tried to analysis the topic by studying various authors, experts, cases of The Indian Apex Court and High courts, articles, etc. The researcher has strictly followed the boundary and has studied only with reference to Indian authors, experts, cases, etc.

METHODOLOGY
The present research study is mainly a doctrinal and analytical. Keeping this in view, the researcher has gone through different books, journals, Web references, E-journal, reports etc.
The relevant material is collected from the secondary sources. Materials and information are collected both legal sources like books.

Energy Resource
2.1.Energy Source
Solar power, that's obvious, but the energy in coal originally came from the Sun too. Prehistoric plants stored the Sun's energy in their leaves, and when they died and eventually formed coal seams, that energy was still there. So when we burn coal (or any fossil fuel), we're releasing chemical energy that was stored in plants millions of years ago.

The same goes for wind and wave power. Waves occur because of winds, and winds blow because the Sun warms our atmosphere. Warm air tends to rise, and winds are due to other air moving in to replace it.

Biomass is also a renewable form of energy and it is better option for country like India. The reason behind this is the easy availability of the raw material for the production of energy. The other is less energy consumption in comparison to nonrenewable source of energy.

Most power stations burn coal, oil or natural gas to run the generators. Others use uranium, or the flow of water. Electricity is sent around the country using high-voltage power lines. Nearly all of the power we use comes from large power stations, although some places such as isolated farms, or hospitals, have their own diesel generators.

The MOP (Ministry of Power) has drafted New and Renewable Energy Policy Statement 2005 issuing guidelines to indigenously develop new and renewable energy technologies, products & services, at par with international standards, specifications, and performance parameters for deployment in a manner so as to arrive at an optimal fuelmix that most effectively meets the overall concerns of the country. To ensure integrated development, a Coordination Committee for Power has been constituted for close coordination amongst the concerned Ministries to deliberate on issues pertaining to generation programmes, evacuation schemes, operational issues and grid related problems. India has pioneered in the world in many administrative actions of renewable energy promotion, such as;

􀂾 Mandatory environmental audits for power projects, 1992
􀂾 Energy conservation bill, 2000
􀂾 Renewable energy promotion bill, 2005.

Today, India is among the leaders in the world in utilization of several RE technologies.

2.2.Types of energy
Energy are broadly classifies into two main groups: renewable and Non-renewable.

Renewable Energy
Renewable energy is energy which is generated from natural sources i.e. sun, wind, rain, tides and can be generated again and again as and when required. They are available in plenty and by far most the cleanest sources of energy available on this planet. For eg: Energy that we receive from the sun can be used to generate electricity. Similarly, energy from wind, geothermal, biomass from plants, tides can be used this form of energy to another form.

Here are some of the pros and cons of using renewable sources of energy:-
Pros
# The sun, wind, geothermal, ocean energy are available in the abundant quantity and free to use.
# The non-renewable sources of energy that we are using are limited and are bound to expire one day.
# Renewable sources have low carbon emissions, therefore they are considered as green and environment friendly.
# Renewable helps in stimulating the economy and creating job opportunities. The money that is used to build these plants can provide jobs to thousands to lakhs of people.
# You don't have to rely on any third country for the supply of renewable sources as in case of non-renewable sources.
# Renewable sources can cost less than consuming the local electrical supply. In the long run, the prices of electricity are expected to soar since they are based on the prices of crude oil, so renewable sources can cut your electricity bills.
# Various tax incentives in the form of tax waivers, credit deductions are available for individuals and businesses who want to go green.

Cons
# It is not easy to set up a plant as the initial costs are quite steep.
# Solar energy can be used during the day time and not during night or rainy season.
# Geothermal energy which can be used to generate electricity has side effects too. It can bring toxic chemicals beneath the earth surface onto the top and can create environmental changes.
# Hydroelectric provide pure form of energy but building dams across the river which is quite expensive can affect natural flow and affect wildlife.
# To use wind energy, you have to rely on strong winds therefore you have to choose suitable site to operate them. Also, they can affect bird population as they are quite high.
# Non-Renewable Energy

# Non-Renewable energy is energy which is taken from the sources that are available on the earth in limited quantity and will vanish fifty-sixty years from now. Non-renewable sources are not environmental friendly and can have serious affect on our health. They are called non-renewable because they can be re-generated within a short span of time. Non-renewable sources exist in the form of fossil fuels, natural gas, oil and coal.

Here are some of the pros and cons of using non-renewable sources of energy:-

Pros
# Non-renewable sources are cheap and easy to use. You can easily fill up your car tank and power your motor vehicle.
# You can use small amount of nuclear energy to produce large amount of power.
# Non-renewable have little or no competition at all. For eg: if you are driving a battery driven car your battery gets discharged then you won't be able to charge it in the middle if the road rather it is easy to find a gas pumping station.
# They are considered as cheap when converting from one type of energy to another.

Cons
Non-renewable sources will expire some day and we have to us our endangered resources to create more non-renewable sources of energy.
The speed at which such resources are being utilized can have serious environmental changes.
Non-renewable sources release toxic gases in the air when burnt which are the major cause for global warming.
Since these sources are going to expire soon, prices of these sources are soaring day by day.

2.3.Renewable vs Non-Renewable Energy
Sun, wind, water, biomass and geothermal energy have been around since the Earth was formed and are renewable (self-sustaining) energy sources. However they can be difficult and often expensive to harness and large amounts are needed to produce only small amounts of electrical or fuel energy.

Oil, natural gas and coal are efficient energy sources because with small amounts we can produce relatively large amounts of electrical or fuel energy. However they are non-renewable energy sources, which once used up, can't be replaced. Pollution is also created when oil and coal are used for energy.

Although we are beginning to use and experiment with alternative energy sources to make electricity and power our vehicles, the easiest and least expensive energy sources to obtain and use are still oil, coal and natural gas. Because of this the world has been slow to change.

However, world governments are now starting to get serious about funding reseach into alternative energy sources, setting up power stations fuelled by renewable energy sources and encouraging the development of vehicles that run on alternative fuels.

Biofuel

Biofuel is a type of fuel whose energy is derived from biological carbon fixation. Biofuels include fuels derived from biomass conversion, as well as soild biomass, liquid biomass and various biogases. Although fossil fuels have their origin in ancient carbon fixation, they are not considered biofuels by the generally accepted definition because they contain carbon that has been "out" of the carbon cycle for a very long time. Biofuels are gaining increased public and scientific attention, driven by factors such as oil price hikes, the need for increased energy security, concern over greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuels, and support from government subsidies.

In 2010 worldwide biofuel production reached 105 billion liters (28 billion gallons US), up 17% from 2009, and biofuels provided 2.7% of the world's fuels for road transport, a contribution largely made up of ethanol and biodiesel. Global ethanol fuel production reached 86 billion liters (23 billion gallons US) in 2010, with the United States and Brazil as the world's top producers, accounting together for 90% of global production. The world's largest biodiesel producer is the EU, accounting for 53% of all biodiesel production in 2010. As of 2011, mandates for blending biofuels exist in 31 countries at the national level and in 29 states/provinces. According to the international energy agency, biofuels have the potential to meet more than a quarter of world demand for transportation fuels by 2050.

Unlike other renewable energy sources, biomass can be converted directly into liquid fuels - biofuels - for our transportation needs (cars, trucks, buses, airplanes, and trains). The two most common types of biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel.

Ethanol is an alcohol, the same found in beer and wine. It is made by fermenting any biomass high in carbohydrates (starches, sugars, or celluloses) through a process similar to brewing beer. Ethanol is mostly used as a fuel additive to cut down a vehicle's carbon monoxide and other smog-causing emissions. But flexible-fuel vehicles, which run on mixtures of gasoline and up to 85% ethanol, are now available.

Corn can be harvested to produce ethanol. Credit: Warren Gretz
Biodiesel is made by combining alcohol (usually methanol) with vegetable oil, animal fat, or recycled cooking greases. It can be used as an additive to reduce vehicle emissions (typically 20%) or in its pure form as a renewable alternative fuel for diesel engines.

Other biofuels include methanol and reformulated gasoline components. Methanol, commonly called wood alcohol, is currently produced from natural gas, but could also be produced from biomass. There are a number of ways to convert biomass to methanol, but the most likely approach is gasification. Gasification involves vaporizing the biomass at high temperatures, then removing impurities from the hot gas and passing it through a catalyst, which converts it into methanol.

Most reformulated gasoline components produced from biomass are pollution-reducing fuel additives, such as methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) and ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE).

3.1. Raw material for biofuel
There are various plant which can be used as raw material for the bio fuel
1. Castor bean
2. Cotton seed
3. Peanuts
4. Soyabean
5. Cramb
6. Sunflower
7. Tung
8. Cocnut
9. Honge
10. Jatropha
11. Mahua
12. Neem
13. Oil palm
14. Barley
15. Corn
16. Sorghum
17. Sugar beet
18. Wheat
19. Elephant grass

This are the few plants from which biofuel can be made and they are good source for it, there can be other sources also which may be I am not aware.

3.2. Sweet shorghum as biofuel
· Need for alternate raw material
Policies to blend petrol with up to 10% ethanol are widely adopted globally, which led to additional ethanol requirement – 0.5 million t in 2006 in India alone. Existing feed stocks, such as sugarcane/sugarcane molasses, are unlikely to meet actual demand. Therefore other options have to be sought, and it was found that sweet sorghum has very good potential as a feedstock for ethanol production.

· Advantages and disadvantage of sweet sorghum
Sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is similar to grain sorghum with a sugar-rich stalk comparable to sugarcane. It has wide adaptability and grows rapidly. In recent years, there is an increased interest in the utilization of sweet sorghum for ethanol production in India. Its growing period and water requirement are 4 times lower than that of sugarcane. Sweet sorghum is best suited for ethanol production because of its higher reducing sugar content as compared to other sources. These important traits, along with its suitability for mechanized crop production and seed propagation makes it the best alternative source of raw material for ethanol production in India.

There are a few disadvantages with sweet sorghum. The primary disadvantage is the short shelflife of the juice. Due to the high sugar content, the juice cannot be stored. However, the addition of yeast under non‐sterile conditions allowed for 95% of the sugar to be converted to ethanol. Fermenting the juice into ethanol on‐farm would appear to be feasible; however methods to concentrate the ethanol into a more concentrated form would be required to reduce storage and transportation costs. In addition, the development of equipment for largescale harvest of sweet sorghum is required.

· From an economic and environmental point of view
The cost of per liter ethanol production from sweet sorghum grain and juice is lower than that from maize and sugarcane, respectively. The stillage from sweet sorghum is rich in micronutrients and minerals, and can be used as fodder or for cogeneration of power. Ethanol being a ‘clean burning fuel’ with high octane rating, existing automobile engines can be operated with gasohol – petrol blended with ethanol (upto 25%) – without any need for engine modification.


4.1. Indian scenario
India starts producing ethanol from sweet sorghum

The country’s first plant for commercial production.................

The country’s first plant for commercial production of ethanol from sweet sorghum, a rainfed multi-benefit crop, has gone on stream at Mohammed Shapur village in Andhra Pradesh.

The pioneering project for gainfully utilising a poor farmers’ crop for ethanol production has been implemented jointly by the Hyderabad-based International Crops Research Institute for Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) and Rusni Distilleries. The plant has developed backward linkage with sweet sorghum growing farmers, with the help of a grass-roots organisation called Aakrithi Agricultural Associates of India (AAI). About 1,600 hectares (4,000 acres) are proposed to be brought under the improved varieties of sweet sorghum during this season. The AAI has identified the cluster of villages and the farmers for growing sweet sorghum.

Though sweet sorghum, like ordinary sorghum, is normally grown as kharif (rainy season) crop, the ICRISAT’s plant breeders have overcome the problem of seasonal supply by developing sweet sorghum hybrids that can be planted at any time of the year. This would ensure year-round supply of raw material to Rusni Distilleries. Sweet sorghum enjoys several advantages over sugarcane or maize as feedstock for biofuel production. It requires only one half of the water needed to grow maize and just one-eighth of that needed for a sugarcane crop. As such, the production cost of sweet sorghum turns out to be merely one-fifth of that of sugarcane, according to the ICRISAT sources.

The biofuel production from sweet sorghum is unlikely to attract criticism that other grain-based biofuel production programmes normally encounter. This is because it does not endanger food security by taking the land away from food production. Only stalk juice is used for ethanol production while the grains remain available for consumption. This apart, sweet sorghum has been certified by an international agency to be a carbon neutral crop. The amount of carbon dioxide that sweet sorghum fixes is equal to the amount it emits during the entire proccess of crop growth, its conversion to ethanol and final combustion of ethanol. This makes it an environment and ecology friendly source of biofuel production.

4.2. Legal Aspect
The Government of India (GOI) approved the National Policy on Biofuels [7] on December 24, 2009. SNAPSHOT OF INDIA’S NATIONAL POLICY ON BIOFUELS: Setting up a National Biofuel Coordination Committee under the Prime Minister for a broader policy perspective and set up a National Biofuel Steering Committee (NBSC) to provide policy guidelines. Strengthen India’s energy security by encouraging use of renewable energy resources to supplement transport fuels. A 20 percent target for blending of biofuel for both bio-diesel and bio-ethanol by 2017 is proposed. Meet the energy needs of a vast rural population as well as stimulate rural development and create employment opportunities. Address global concerns about the containment of carbon emissions through the use of environmentally friendly biofuels [8] . Derive bio-fuels from non-feed stock that would be raised on degraded land or wastelands that are not suited to agriculture, thus avoiding a possible conflict of fuel verses food security.

Facilitate and bring about optimal development and utilization of indigenous biomass feedstock for the production of biofuels. The policy also envisages development of next-generation, more efficient biofuel conversion technologies based on new feed stocks. Minimum Support Price (MSP) mechanism to ensure a fair price for bio-diesel oilseed growers. The implementation of the proposal would be considered carefully after consultation with stake holders, central and state governments and then by the Biofuel Steering Committee and finally decided by National Biofuel Coordination Committee. Oil Marketing Companies propose to purchase bio-ethanol at a Minimum Purchase Price (MPP) based on the actual cost of production and the import price of bio-ethanol. In the case of biodiesel, the MPP should be linked to the prevailing retail diesel price. As necessary, the GOI proposes considering a National Biofuel Fund for providing financial incentives, including subsidies and grants, for new and second generation feed stocks, advanced technologies and conversion processes, and production units based on new and second generation feed stocks. Except for a concessional excise duty of 16 percent on bio-ethanol, no other central taxes and duties are proposed for on bio-diesel and bio-ethanol. A thrust for innovation, (multi-institutional, indigenous and time bound) on research and development of bio-fuel feedstock production, including second generation biofuels. Biofuel technologies and projects will be allowed 100 percent foreign equity through automatic approval routes to attract Foreign Direct Investment (FDI), provided biofuel is for domestic use only, and not for export. Plantations of non-edible oil bearing plants would not be open for FDI participation

Conclusion and outcome of hypothesis
In India presently only 3 company is using biofuel and out it one Tata group, we should use more biofuel in comparison to the fossil fuels. When ford launch its first car in the world named Ts he had decided to use biofuel for its use but latter on he decided that there is lot of availability of fossil fuel on earth he drop the idea of using biofuel, but now we have limited fossil fuel so we should move towards biofuel.

Sweet sorghum as biofuel is one the best as it require very less water in comparison to other plants which can be used for the production of biofuel. It production is also cheaper in comparison to other plants which can be used for the production of biofuels. As the plant can be grown easily we should use them for the energy as far as possible and it has very less effect on the environment.

Now there is need of using biofuels and government should also take some steps to promote it. Government has made some policy on it but very less people is aware about it and they should do some advertisement for the promotion of such policy and what kind of subsidiary they are granting to the people.

There are various other sources for biofuel but sweet shorghum is most preferred one according to me there are various reason for this out of which few are, that it consume only 1/3rd of the water in comparison to other plants, it can have various type of uses like eating also.
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
# http://www.darvill.clara.net/altenerg/index.htm
# K.S.Sidhu Director/Research, Punjab State Electricity Board, PEC Campus, Chandigarh
# http://www.southmoor.vic.edu.au/Projects/Sustainability/Energy/Renewable.html
# Demirbas, A. . (2009). "Political, economic and environmental impacts of biofuels: A review". Applied Energy 86: S108–S117
# "Biofuels Make a Comeback Despite Tough Economy". Worldwatch Institute
# "Renewables 2011: Global Status Report". pp. 13–14
# IEA says biofuels can displace 27% of transportation fuels by 2050 Washington". Platts. 20 April 2011
# Feasibility of Ethanol Production from Sweet Sorghum in Kentucky
# Surinder Sud / New Delhi June 15, 2007, Business Standard, June 29, 2007
# Amit Aradhev: Report on India biofuel 2010

Books
1. Environmental law by S.C.Shastri
2. Environmental law bare text

Articles
1. RAW MATERIALS FOR BIOFUELS By Robert Davenport
2. Sweet sorghum R&D at the Nimbkar Agricultural Research Institute (NARI) by A. K. Rajvanshi and N. Nimbkar
3. India Biofuel Annual Report 2010 by Amit Aradhay
4. Feasibility of Ethanol Production from Sweet Sorghum in Kentucky Final Report July 2009 byMontross, M.D., T.W. Pfeiffer, C.L. Crofcheck, S.A. Shearer, and C.R. Dillon
5. NON-CONVENTIONAL ENERGY RESOURCES by K.S.Sidhu
6. Renewable vs. non-renewable energy sources, forms and technologies prepared by. A.Gritsevskyi, IAEA

Authors contact info - articles The  author can be reached at: akashshah@legalserviceindia.com




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